The Genoa Conference ends. Treaty of Kars is ratified in Yerevan, Soviet Union. Benito Mussolini calls for Italian Blackshirts to march on Rome. The Treaty of Rome is signed between Italy and Yugoslavia.
Mussolini dismisses the Italian Parliament and assumes total control of Italy. Germany and the Soviet Union sign the Treaty of Berlin. If one country is attacked, the other is to remain neutral. Germany admitted to the League of Nations. The countries condemn recourse to war, renouncing it as an instrument of national policy in relations with one another. The Treaty of Paris becomes effective, with 31 more countries signing compliance. In France, construction of the Maginot defence line begins near the border with Germany.
The Nazi Party becomes the 2nd largest party in the Reichstag after the latest round of elections. With the war having turned decisively against the Central Powers , the people of Austria-Hungary lost faith in their allied countries, and even before the armistice in November, radical nationalism had already led to several declarations of independence in south-central Europe after November As the central government had ceased to operate in vast areas, these regions found themselves without a government and many new groups attempted to fill the void.
During this same period, the population was facing food shortages and was, for the most part, demoralized by the losses incurred during the war. Various political parties, ranging from ardent nationalists, to social democrats, to communists attempted to set up governments in the names of the different nationalities.
In other areas, existing nation states such as Romania engaged regions that they considered to be theirs. These moves created de facto governments that complicated life for diplomats, idealists, and the Western allies.
The Western forces were officially supposed to occupy the old Empire, but rarely had enough troops to do so effectively. They had to deal with local authorities who had their own agenda to fulfill. At the peace conference in Paris the diplomats had to reconcile these authorities with the competing demands of the nationalists who had turned to them for help during the war, the strategic or political desires of the Western allies themselves, and other agendas such as a desire to implement the spirit of the Fourteen Points.
For example, in order to live up to the ideal of self-determination laid out in the Fourteen Points, Germans, whether Austrian or German, should be able to decide their own future and government.
However, the French especially were concerned that an expanded Germany would be a huge security risk. Further complicating the situation, delegations such as the Czechs and Slovenians made strong claims on some German-speaking territories. The result was treaties that compromised many ideals, offended many allies, and set up an entirely new order in the area.
Many people hoped that the new nation states would allow for a new era of prosperity and peace in the region, free from the bitter quarrelling between nationalities that had marked the preceding fifty years. This hope proved far too optimistic. Changes in territorial configuration after World War I included:. These changes were recognized in, but not caused by, the Treaty of Versailles. The treaties generally included guarantees of minority rights, but there was no enforcement mechanism.
The new states of eastern Europe mostly all had large ethnic minorities. Millions of Germans found themselves in the newly created countries as minorities. More than two million ethnic Hungarians found themselves living outside of Hungary in Slovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia. Many of these national minorities found themselves in hostile situations because the modern governments were intent on defining the national character of the countries, often at the expense of the other nationalities.
The interwar years were hard for religious minorities in the new states built around ethnic nationalism. The Jews were especially distrusted because of their minority religion and distinct subculture. This was a dramatic come-down from the days of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Although antisemitism had been widespread during Habsburg rule, Jews faced no official discrimination because they were, for the most part, ardent supporters of the multi-national state and the monarchy.
The economic disruption of the war and the end of the Austro-Hungarian customs union created great hardship in many areas. Although many states were set up as democracies after the war, one by one, with the exception of Czechoslovakia, they reverted to some form of authoritarian rule. Many quarreled amongst themselves but were too weak to compete effectively.
Later, when Germany rearmed, the nation states of south-central Europe were unable to resist its attacks, and fell under German domination to a much greater extent than had ever existed in Austria-Hungary. The occupation of Smyrna by Greece on 18 May triggered a nationalist movement to rescind the terms of the treaty. On the western front, the growing strength of the Turkish nationalist forces led Greece, with the backing of Britain, to invade deep into Anatolia in an attempt to deal a blow to the revolutionaries.
With the nationalists empowered, the army marched on to reclaim Istanbul, resulting in the Chanak Crisis in which the British Prime Minister, David Lloyd George , was forced to resign. As a result, Turkey became the only power of World War I to overturn the terms of its defeat, and negotiate with the Allies as an equal. Lausanne Treaty formally acknowledged the new League of Nations mandates in the Middle East, the cession of their territories on the Arabian Peninsula, and British sovereignty over Cyprus.
Mandate Palestine and the Emirate of Transjordan. The dissolution of the Ottoman Empire became a pivotal milestone in the creation of the modern Middle East, the result of which bore witness to the creation of new conflicts and hostilities in the region.
In Britain, funding the war had a severe economic cost. Inflation more than doubled between and its peak in , while the value of the Pound Sterling consumer expenditure  fell by Reparations in the form of free German coal depressed local industry, precipitating the General Strike.
Most of this was replaced in and all immediately after the war. Less concrete changes include the growing assertiveness of Commonwealth nations. Battles such as Gallipoli for Australia and New Zealand, and Vimy Ridge for Canada led to increased national pride and a greater reluctance to remain subordinate to Britain, leading to the growth of diplomatic autonomy in the s. These battles were often decorated in propaganda in these nations as symbolic of their power during the war.
Colonies such as the British Raj India and Nigeria also became increasingly assertive because of their participation in the war. The populations in these countries became increasingly aware of their own power and Britain's fragility. In Ireland, the delay in finding a resolution to the home rule issue, partly caused by the war, as well as the Easter Rising and a failed attempt to introduce conscription in Ireland , increased support for separatist radicals.
This led indirectly to the outbreak of the Irish War of Independence in The creation of the Irish Free State that followed this conflict in effect represented a territorial loss for Britain that was all but equal to the loss sustained by Germany, and furthermore, compared to Germany, a much greater loss in terms of its ratio to the country's prewar territory. After World War I women gained the right to vote as, during the war, they had had to fill-in for what were previously categorised as "men's jobs", thus showing the government that women were not as weak and incompetent as they thought.
Also, there were several significant developments in medicine and technology as the injured had to be cared for and there were several new illnesses that medicine had to deal with. While disillusioned by the war, it having not achieved the high ideals promised by President Woodrow Wilson , American commercial interests did finance Europe's rebuilding and reparation efforts in Germany, at least until the onset of the Great Depression.
American opinion on the propriety of providing aid to Germans and Austrians was split, as evidenced by an exchange of correspondence between Edgar Gott , an executive with The Boeing Company and Charles Osner, chairman of the Committee for the Relief of Destitute Women and Children in Germany and Austria.
Gott argued that relief should first go to citizens of countries that had suffered at the hands of the Central Powers , while Osner made an appeal for a more universal application of humanitarian ideals. At the Peace Conference, Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau 's aim was to ensure that Germany would not seek revenge in the following years. To this purpose, the chief commander of the Allied forces, Marshal Ferdinand Foch , had demanded that for the future protection of France the Rhine river should now form the border between France and Germany.
Based on history, he was convinced that Germany would again become a threat, and, on hearing the terms of the Treaty of Versailles that had left Germany substantially intact, he observed that "This is not Peace. It is an Armistice for twenty years. The destruction brought upon French territory was to be indemnified by the reparations negotiated at Versailles.
This financial imperative dominated France's foreign policy throughout the s, leading to the Occupation of the Ruhr in order to force Germany to pay. However, Germany was unable to pay, and obtained support from the United States. Also extremely important in the War was the participation of French colonial troops , including the Senegalese tirailleurs , and troops from Indochina , North Africa, and Madagascar. When these soldiers returned to their homelands and continued to be treated as second class citizens, many became the nuclei of pro-independence groups.
Furthermore, under the state of war declared during the hostilities, the French economy had been somewhat centralized in order to be able to shift into a " war economy ", leading to a first breach with classical liberalism. However, even if relations with Berlin became very friendly, the alliance with Vienna remained purely formal, as the Italians were keen to acquire Trentino and Trieste , parts of the Austro-Hungarian empire populated by Italians. This could happen since the alliance formally had merely defensive prerogatives, while the Central Empires were the ones who started the offensive.
With the Treaty of London , Britain secretly offered Italy Trentino and Tyrol as far as Brenner , Trieste and Istria , all the Dalmatian coast except Fiume , full ownership of Albanian Valona and a protectorate over Albania , Antalya in Turkey and a share of the Turkish and German colonial empire , in exchange for Italy siding against the Central Empires [ citation needed ].
After the victory, Vittorio Orlando , Italy's President of the Council of Ministers , and Sidney Sonnino , its Foreign Minister , were sent as the Italian representatives to Paris with the aim of gaining the promised territories and as much other land as possible.
In particular, there was an especially strong opinion about the status of Fiume , which they believed was rightly Italian due to Italian population, in agreement with Wilson 's Fourteen Points , the ninth of which read:.
Nevertheless, by the end of the war the Allies realized they had made contradictory agreements with other Nations, especially regarding Central Europe and the Middle-East. In the meetings of the "Big Four", in which Orlando's powers of diplomacy were inhibited by his lack of English, the Great powers were only willing to offer Trentino to the Brenner , the Dalmatian port of Zara , the island of Lagosta and a couple of small German colonies.
All other territories were promised to other nations and the great powers were worried about Italy's imperial ambitions; Wilson, in particular, was a staunch supporter of Yugoslav rights on Dalmatia against Italy and despite the Treaty of London which he did not recognize.
On the negative side, inflation was high and companies and corporations started the reduce wages and lay off workers to keep down operating costs. The power of the Unions had grown during the war, workers protested and saw a massive wave of strikes. Competition for employment led to racial unrest and race riots breeding hatred and suspicion which spilled over into the Red Scare and the fear of communism.
In President Wilson predicted: To fight you must be brutal and ruthless, and the spirit of ruthless brutality will enter into the very fibre of our national life, infecting Congress, the courts, the policeman on the beat, the man in the street.
The impact of the Great War on the United States saw political, economic and social changes. The United States emerged from the war as a world military and industrial leader. Effects of WW1 on America Fact 2: Unlike the war-torn cities of Europe the homes and industries of the nation were relatively unscathed by the Great War. The late entry of the US meant that fewer men had lost their lives than in Europe. Effects of WW1 on America Fact 3: Production and efficiency in industries and factories had increased.
Technology had advanced and the nation had entered the age of steel and electricity. Effects of WW1 on America Fact 4: The Progressive Movement - gave rise to the many social and political Progressive Reforms changing the lifestyles and expectations of Americans.
Effects of WW1 on America Fact 5: The role of women changed during Great War, and many women took on the jobs of men. The influence and expectations of women and their role in society increased. Effects of WW1 on America Fact 6: Women's suffrage gave the right of a woman to vote. Effects of WW1 on America Fact 7: There was a boom in the economy and industries were enjoying an increase in profits.
However inflation was high and, in an attempt to reduce operating costs, businesses laid off workers and reduced wages. Effects of WW1 on America Fact 8:
The aftermath of World War I saw drastic political, cultural, economic, and social change across Eurasia (Europe and Asia), Africa, and even in areas outside those that were directly involved. Four empires collapsed due to the war, old countries were abolished, new ones were formed, boundaries were redrawn, international organizations were.
Professor David Stevenson explains how the Treaty of Versailles, the Treaties of Saint-Germain and Trianon and the Treaties of Neuilly and Sèvres re-drew Europe's post-war boundaries.
Find a summary, definition and facts about the Effects of WW1 on America for kids. United States history and the Effects of WW1 on America. Information about the Effects of WW1 on America for kids, children, homework and schools. Aftermath of World War I and the Rise of Nazism, – - US Holocaust Memorial Museum (Full film) Efforts of the western European powers to marginalize Germany undermined and isolated its democratic leaders.
Welcome to The Aftermath!: The terms of the Treaty of Versailles imposed upon Germany at the end World War 1 sowed the seeds of World War 2 by stripping Germany of territory and requiring her to pay huge reparations to the victorious powers. Practice wwi aftermath with Khan Academy's free online exercises.