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Characteristics of Experimental Design

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❶Experimentalresearch is done by conducting original experiments. Experiments study the influence of one or more variable on another.

Aims of Experimental Research

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Identifying and controlling non-experimental factors which the researcher does not want to influence the effects, is crucial to drawing a valid conclusion.

This is often done by controlling variables , if possible, or randomizing variables to minimize effects that can be traced back to third variables. Researchers only want to measure the effect of the independent variable s when conducting an experiment , allowing them to conclude that this was the reason for the effect. In quantitative research , the amount of data measured can be enormous. Data not prepared to be analyzed is called "raw data".

The raw data is often summarized as something called "output data", which typically consists of one line per subject or item. A cell of the output data is, for example, an average of an effect in many trials for a subject. The output data is used for statistical analysis, e. The aim of an analysis is to draw a conclusion , together with other observations.

The researcher might generalize the results to a wider phenomenon, if there is no indication of confounding variables "polluting" the results. If the researcher suspects that the effect stems from a different variable than the independent variable, further investigation is needed to gauge the validity of the results. An experiment is often conducted because the scientist wants to know if the independent variable is having any effect upon the dependent variable.

Variables correlating are not proof that there is causation. Experiments are more often of quantitative nature than qualitative nature, although it happens.

This website contains many examples of experiments. Some are not true experiments , but involve some kind of manipulation to investigate a phenomenon. Others fulfill most or all criteria of true experiments. Here are some examples of scientific experiments:. Check out our quiz-page with tests about:.

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Check out our quiz-page with tests about: Back to Overview "Experimental Research". Search over articles on psychology, science, and experiments.

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Add to my courses. Answering the question requires coming up with a research strategy that effectively answers the question being asked. This is obvious in theory; in practice, there are many research strategies that fail to answer the question. For example, all three of the questions posed above could be answered simply by administering the drug, conducting more flash-card reading quizzes in KI or trying out a different rubber compound.

If cancers then spread slower, reading outcomes improved and mileage rates went up, this may show that each of these approaches works. But in each case, there's a fundamental flaw in the research design that makes relying on a favorable outcome an unreliable indication that any of these things work. Take the cancer drug, for example.

If you know that the time from diagnosis to mortality for the cancer is 4. First of all, the research design fails to match the total U. If your research hospital's patients differ in profile from the general patient population for this cancer, that could account for the increased longevity. Richer patients, for example, are usually diagnosed earlier than poorer patients.

This affects outcomes profoundly. Secondly, without administration of the drug to one patient group and administration of a placebo to another group of patients matched as closely as possible to the first, while you can say that longevity increased, you have no way of knowing that the drug is what made the difference.

Even if you tried to create a patient group that matched a larger population and then noticed that outcomes improved, without a control group, how do you know that it wasn't just the psychological boost that came with being enrolled that improved outcomes? The notorious "placebo effect" could account for all of it. It's widely known that patient outcomes often improve when a placebo is administered, which proves that the mind is a powerful thing, but not that the placebo is an effective drug for treating cancer.

There are many different experimental research design strategies. Here are a few of the most common:. Other common design strategies subdivide test groups into subjects with similar profiles, or test two hypotheses simultaneously or test different subgroups with several tests administered in different orders. These criteria assure that the outcome of treatment results directly and exclusively from a defined variable. Another criterion for a successful research design that's been increasingly influential in the 21st century.

Perhaps the most egregious violation of that principle was the notorious Tuskegee "Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male," begun in and conducted over a 40 year period by the U. Public Health Service on subjects exposed to syphilis, sometimes without their knowledge, and then lied to about placebo treatments that left them untreated. While the experiment itself was inexcusable, it eventually resulted in an increased awareness of science's responsibility for ethical experimental design.

A similar emphasis on ethical experimental design has limited the number of research experiments involving animals in the 21st century. Testing for the effects of various cosmetics, for instance, some of them subsequently proven to be harmful or fatal to mammals, has decreased substantially worldwide and in some countries is now prohibited entirely. I am a retired Registered Investment Advisor with 12 years experience as head of an investment management firm.

I also have a Ph. Skip to main content. Researcher 4 Resume Format for Clinical Research. The Reason for Experimental Research Implicit in every research project is an unanswered question.


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In a previous post, we began a discussion on experimental design. In this post, we will begin a discussion on the characteristics of experimental design. In this post, we will begin a discussion on the characteristics of experimental design.

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Keywords: characteristic of experimental research 1) Hattie's () participants were classified as experienced or expert according to the National Board for .

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Experimental Research: Experimental research is guided by educated guesses that guess theresult of the experiment. An experiment is conducted to giveevidence to this experimen tal hypothesis. Experimental research,although very demanding of time and resources, often produces thesoundest evidence concerning hypothesized cause-effectrelationships. The word experimental research has a range of definitions. In the strict sense, experimental research is what we call a true experiment. This is an experiment where the researcher manipulates one variable, and control/randomizes the rest of the variables.

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Characteristics of Experimental Research 3: Definition. The researcher has control over assignment of groups to treatments. Term. Characteristics of Experimental Research 4: Definition. The researcher can randomly assign participants to groups (this is different than random selection of subjects). Mar 26,  · Effective experimental research design always answers a specific question in a way that controls for differences in treatment populations and for other differences, usually by creating an experimental group and a control group, testing both populations before and after completion of .