The End of Homework: How Homework Disrupts Families, Overburdens Children, and Limits Learning by Kralovec and Buell , considered by many to be the first high-profile attack on homework, asserted that homework contributes to a corporate-style, competitive U. The authors focused particularly on the harm to economically disadvantaged students, who are unintentionally penalized because their environments often make it almost impossible to complete assignments at home. The authors called for people to unite against homework and to lobby for an extended school day instead.
These authors criticized both the quantity and quality of homework. They provided evidence that too much homework harms students' health and family time, and they asserted that teachers are not well trained in how to assign homework.
The authors suggested that individuals and parent groups should insist that teachers reduce the amount of homework, design more valuable assignments, and avoid homework altogether over breaks and holidays.
In a third book, The Homework Myth: In this book and in a recent article in Phi Delta Kappan b , he became quite personal in his condemnation of researchers. For example, referring to Harris Cooper, the lead author of the two leading meta-analyses on homework, Kohn noted, A careful reading of Cooper's own studies.
Finally, Kohn urged teachers to involve students in deciding what homework, and how much, they should do. Some of Kohn's recommendations have merit. For example, it makes good sense to only assign homework that is beneficial to student learning instead of assigning homework as a matter of policy. Many of those who conduct research on homework explicitly or implicitly recommend this practice.
However, his misunderstanding or misrepresentation of the research sends the inaccurate message that research does not support homework. As Figure 1 indicates, homework has decades of research supporting its effective use.
Kohn's allegations that researchers are trying to mislead practitioners and the general public are unfounded and detract from a useful debate on effective practice. Certainly, inappropriate homework may produce little or no benefit—it may even decrease student achievement. All three of the books criticizing homework provide compelling anecdotes to this effect. Schools should strengthen their policies to ensure that teachers use homework properly. If a district or school discards homework altogether, however, it will be throwing away a powerful instructional tool.
Cooper and colleagues' comparison of homework with no homework indicates that the average student in a class in which appropriate homework was assigned would score 23 percentile points higher on tests of the knowledge addressed in that class than the average student in a class in which homework was not assigned.
Perhaps the most important advantage of homework is that it can enhance achievement by extending learning beyond the school day. This characteristic is important because U. A report examined the amount of time U. To drop the use of homework, then, a school or district would be obliged to identify a practice that produces a similar effect within the confines of the school day without taking away or diminishing the benefits of other academic activities—no easy accomplishment.
A better approach is to ensure that teachers use homework effectively. To enact effective homework policies, however, schools and districts must address the following issues. Although teachers across the K—12 spectrum commonly assign homework, research has produced no clear-cut consensus on the benefits of homework at the early elementary grade levels.
In his early meta-analysis, Cooper a reported the following effect sizes p. The pattern clearly indicates that homework has smaller effects at lower grade levels.
Even so, Cooper b still recommended homework for elementary students because homework for young children should help them develop good study habits, foster positive attitudes toward school, and communicate to students the idea that learning takes work at home as well as at school. The Cooper, Robinson, and Patall meta-analysis found the same pattern of stronger relationships at the secondary level but also identified a number of studies at grades 2, 3, and 4 demonstrating positive effects for homework.
In The Battle over Homework , Cooper noted that homework should have different purposes at different grade levels: For students in the earliest grades , it should foster positive attitudes, habits, and character traits; permit appropriate parent involvement; and reinforce learning of simple skills introduced in class.
For students in upper elementary grades , it should play a more direct role in fostering improved school achievement. In 6th grade and beyond , it should play an important role in improving standardized test scores and grades. One of the more contentious issues in the homework debate is the amount of time students should spend on homework.
The Cooper synthesis a reported that for junior high school students, the benefits increased as time increased, up to 1 to 2 hours of homework a night, and then decreased. The Cooper, Robinson, and Patall study reported similar findings: The researchers suggested that for 12th graders the optimum amount of homework might lie between 1. Still, researchers have offered various recommendations. For example, Good and Brophy cautioned that teachers must take care not to assign too much homework.
They suggested that homework must be realistic in length and difficulty given the students' abilities to work independently. Thus, 5 to 10 minutes per subject might be appropriate for 4th graders, whereas 30 to 60 minutes might be appropriate for college-bound high school students.
Cooper, Robinson, and Patall also issued a strong warning about too much homework: Even for these oldest students, too much homework may diminish its effectiveness or even become counterproductive. He added that when required reading is included as a type of homework, the minute rule might be increased to 15 minutes. Focusing on the amount of time students spend on homework, however, may miss the point. A significant proportion of the research on homework indicates that the positive effects of homework relate to the amount of homework that the student completes rather than the amount of time spent on homework or the amount of homework actually assigned.
Thus, simply assigning homework may not produce the desired effect—in fact, ill-structured homework might even have a negative effect on student achievement. Teachers must carefully plan and assign homework in a way that maximizes the potential for student success see Research-Based Homework Guidelines. Another question regarding homework is the extent to which schools should involve parents.
Some studies have reported minimal positive effects or even negative effects for parental involvement. They recommended interactive homework in which Parents receive clear guidelines spelling out their role. Homework is good because it can review and reflect the things learnt in class. I think Homework is helpful, because it let's the teacher now what you are struggling on and what you don't need help with. I think homework has it's disadvantages. Instead if they are doing homework and is still continuing to do it wrong they will keep doing it wrong and keep on that same path.
If the student needs help they need to go the teacher. Homework will only hurt that child especially if it's for a grade. What you are saying is myth homework actually gives you liwer test scores grades health etc.. I am living proof my story is a bit sad but it gives you a big reason to take homework away before it causes more damage. I think it is helpful because kids might learn more.
This is going to help me for my essay I will have to write. I am doing a speech on homework and personally I believe it sometimes can be helpful but often just annoys the children who are forced to do it. I think homework is bad because you can have stress and even die.
There was a teenager that died because of homework. The only reason she died is because she had stress. That is why I do not like homework. I think its not helpful because it develops inequality among students. Thank you for sharing your thoughts on this topic! Thanks for sharing your thoughts with us, Sydnee! Homework is necessary in the academic life of a child and student.
It's advantages outweigh it's disadvantages. However, it has to be in moderation. It's advisable that parents don't get involved in the actual writing but can encourage their children to work on it as soon as possible. We learn a thing by doing it. Teachers should be guided by reason while assigning homework. I'll also suggest it be graded accordingly. Very well stated, Jude. Thank you for taking the time to share your thoughts on this debate with us.
As you point out, there is responsibility on the part of the parents, as well as the teachers, to ensure that students can get the most out of their assignments. Thank you for your comment Holly! Homework in moderation is a reasonable stance in the homework debate. The correlation was stronger for older students—in seventh through 12th grade—than for those in younger grades, for whom there was a weak relationship between homework and performance.
His report noted that homework is also thought to improve study habits, attitudes toward school, self-discipline, inquisitiveness and independent problem solving skills.
On the other hand, some studies he examined showed that homework can cause physical and emotional fatigue, fuel negative attitudes about learning and limit leisure time for children. At the end of his analysis, Cooper recommended further study of such potential effects of homework. Despite the weak correlation between homework and performance for young children, Cooper argues that a small amount of homework is useful for all students.
Cathy Vatterott, an education professor at the University of Missouri-St. Vatterott, the author of Rethinking Homework: Best Practices That Support Diverse Needs , thinks there should be more emphasis on improving the quality of homework tasks, and she supports efforts to eliminate homework for younger kids.
The issue has been debated for decades.
Helpful and harmful. Helpful as it gives you more practice to reinforce things such as maths. Harmful because so many hours have been spent at school concentrating on work and teachers, it can seem like extra after school is just overkill.
Home › Blog › The Great Homework Debate: Is Homework Helpful or Harmful to Students? Sep 13, by Cory Armes, newssous.tk Sometimes, I feel as if I have been doing homework my entire life.
Homework is helpful. Homework is by no means harmful, it is a teaching tool in order for the person to learn more about a subject by doing things hands on. Learning by doing the work is the most effect way of learning, rather than just reading something or seeing someone else do it. “Is homework harmful or helpful?” That question makes many teachers, students, and their parents worried. We have collected enough evidence to support those who are against homework and people who are in favor of homework assignments. Who will win the debates? Read the article to .
Oct 03, · Homework must be corrected quickly or students get frustrated and lose interest. It can be too burdensome and stressful at times. Homework disturbs family life and prevents students from doing household chores. Parents or relatives may do the homework for the student. Students need time to relax, play and pursue sports and hobbies. Is homework harmful or helpful debate: Write my homework. We specialize in athletic field management and renovations. ask about our laser grading and mound and plate packages!