It may also be prefaced by a description of the analysis procedure that was used. If there were multiple experiments, then each experiment may require a separate Results section. What is the significance of your results? Limitations and directions for future research are also commonly addressed. List of articles and any books cited — an alphabetized list of the sources that are cited in the paper by last name of the first author of each source.
Each reference should follow specific APA guidelines regarding author names, dates, article titles, journal titles, journal volume numbers, page numbers, book publishers, publisher locations, websites, and so on for more information, please see the Citing References in APA Style page of this website. Tables are included first, followed by Figures. However, for some journals and undergraduate research papers such as the B.
Supplementary information optional — in some cases, additional information that is not critical to understanding the research paper, such as a list of experiment stimuli, details of a secondary analysis, or programming code, is provided. This is often placed in an Appendix. Although the major sections described above are common to most research papers written in APA style, there are variations on that pattern.
In some cases, official APA style might not be followed however, be sure to check with your editor, instructor, or other sources before deviating from standards of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Such deviations may include:. Abstract One-paragraph summary of the entire study — typically no more than words in length and in many cases it is well shorter than that , the Abstract provides an overview of the study. Introduction What is the topic and why is it worth studying?
Methods What did you do? In order to improve our general knowledge about how to format papers in our beloved APA style or to refresh our previous knowledge related to it, this post intends to give a brief overview over the structure of a scientific paper and some other crucial APA features your paper should contain.
Main sections of your research paper Whereas a literature review summarizes the most important experimental and qualitative studies that have been conducted in a specific are of interest, the experimental report is the most common form, one that you will employ when reporting the results of your own thesis or study.
Its structure reflects the scientific method and the steps relate to the course your research project follows. It helps interested readers to quickly find the section they are looking for and as it is universally determined by the APA guidelines, it is easy to memorize since you will always have to follow the same structure. Thus, your paper should cover the following areas of interest:. Your paper Your paper should be typed, double-spaced on standard-sized paper 8. Nevertheless, make sure to check the guidelines for paper submission every journal has in order to prepare and structure your research work according to their wishes.
If you refer to them, it might help you speeding up the reviewing process a little bit, since they will not have to make a large amount of technical corrections. In the following paragraph, the sections of a scientific paper are listed chronologically from the beginning of the paper to its end providing some short ideas on the core features that those sections should contain.
Normally an experimental report consists of the following sections:. The title page should contain the following important parameter: Type your title in upper and lowercase letters centered in the upper half of the page. APA recommends that your title be no more than 12 words in length and that it should not contain abbreviations or words that serve no purpose.
Your title may take up one or two lines. All text on the title page, and throughout your paper, should be double-spaced. All subsequent pages of your article should contain a running head that indicates the title of your paper in the left column of the page, like this: Beginning a new page after the first one introducing your research, your abstract page should already contain the above mentioned running head.
Beginning with the next line, write a concise summary of the key points of your research. Your abstract should contain at least your research topic, research questions, participants, methods, results, data analysis, and conclusions. Moreover, it should be a single paragraph double-spaced with a normal lenght of somewhat between and words.
You may also want to list keywords from your paper in your abstract. To do this, indent as you would if you were starting a new paragraph, type Keywords: Listing your keywords will help researchers find your work in databases.
After having briefly described your entire research conducted in your paper, you can now focus on a more detailed presentation of the theoretical background of your research topic. Never forget to refer to the authors you received the theoretical information from and to enlist them later on in the reference list.
This section will contain information about the participants of your experimental study, the research design you have employed, the procedure underlying your experiment or whatever it is you did to collect some qualitative or quantitative data such as a brief information about the analysis method for instance: Materials or questionnaires that you have presented the participants should be referred to briefly and added to the Appendix section at the end of your paper, because it would interrupt the flow of reading if you inserted it here.
A description of the results you have obtained from your research is destined to be presented here.
Identify the subject of the essay and define the key terms. Highlight the major issues which “lie behind” the question. Let the reader know how you will focus your essay by identifying the main themes to be discussed. “Signpost” the essay’s key argument, (and, if possible, how this argument is structured).Author: Saul Mcleod.
For many students, writing the introduction is the first part of the process, setting down the direction of the paper and laying out exactly what the research paper is trying to achieve. For others, the introduction is the last thing written, acting as a .
Research Paper Structure Whether you are writing a B.S. Degree Research Paper or completing a research report for a Psychology course, it is highly likely that you will need to organize your research paper in accordance with American Psychological Association (APA) guidelines. A Brief Guide to Writing the Psychology Paper The Challenges of Writing in Psychology sentence structure. The best writers of psychology have the ability to make complex ideas understandable to people outside of their area of expertise. When you write a psychology paper, you are, above all.
What’s on the IB Psychology Exam? Unlike the AP Psychology Exam, this question is a little more complicated for IB Psychology. This is because the curriculum for IB Psychology offers a bit of flexibility and choice for which areas of psychology are focused on, known as the options. Sports Psychology. The assessment for paper . In order to improve our general knowledge about how to format papers in our beloved APA style or to refresh our previous knowledge related to it, this post intends to give a brief overview over the structure of a scientific paper and some other crucial APA features your paper should contain.